Rampart Nations

Liliya Berezhnaya and Heidi Hein-Kircher

Bulwark Myths of East European Multiconfessional Societies in the Age of Nationalism

Edited by Liliya Berezhnaya and Heidi Hein-Kircher


The “bulwark” or antemurale myth—whereby a region is imagined as a defensive barrier against a dangerous Other—has been a persistent strand in the development of Eastern European nationalisms. While historical studies of the topic have typically focused on clashes and overlaps between sociocultural and religious formations, Rampart Nations delves deeper to uncover the mutual transfers and multi-sided national and interconfessional conflicts that helped to spread bulwark myths through Europe’s eastern periphery over several centuries. Ranging from art history to theology to political science, this volume offers new ways of understanding the political, social, and religious forces that continue to shape identity in Eastern Europe.

Liliya Berezhnaya is an Assistant Professor at University of Münster’s “Religion and Politics” Cluster of Excellence in Germany. Her publications include Iconic Turns: Nation and Religion in Eastern European Cinema since 1989 (2013), co-edited with Christian Schmitt, and The World to Come: Ukrainian Images of the Last Judgment (2015), co-authored with John-Paul Himka.

Heidi Hein-Kircher earned her master’s and doctoral degrees from Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf. In 2018, she earned her habilitation degree at Philipps University in Marburg. She is currently on the research staff at the Herder Institute for Historical Research on East Central Europe in Marburg, Germany. She is also the Head of Department at the Institute’s Academic Forum.


List of Illustrations
A Note on Transliteration and Toponyms


Introduction: Constructing a Rampart Nation: Conceptual Framework
Liliya Berezhnaya and Heidi Hein-Kircher

Chapter 1. The Origins of Antemurale Christianitatis Myths: Remarks on the Promotion of a Political Concept
Kerstin Weiand


Chapter 2. Not a Bulwark, But a Part of the Larger Catholic Community: The Romanian Greek Catholic Church in Transylvania (1700–1850)
Ciprian Ghisa

Chapter 3. Securitizing the Polish Bulwark:The Mission of Lviv in Polish Travel Guides During the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
Heidi Hein-Kircher

Chapter 4. Ghetto as an “Inner Antemurale“? Debates on Exclusion, Integration, and Identity in Galicia in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century
Jürgen Heyde

Chapter 5. Holy Ground and a Bulwark against “the Other”: The (Re)Construction of an Orthodox Crimea in the Nineteenth-Century Russian Empire
Kerstin S. Jobst

Chapter 6. Bastions of Faith in the Oceans of Ambiguities: Monasteries in the East European Borderlands (Late Nineteenth– Beginning of the Twentieth Century)
Liliya Berezhnaya

Chapter 7. “The Turkish Wall:” Turkey as an Anti-Communist and Anti-Russian Bulwark in the Twentieth Century
Zaur Gasimov


Chapter 8. Why Didn’t the Antemurale Historical Mythology Develop in Early Nineteenth-Century Ukraine?
Volodymyr Kravchenko

Chapter 9. Translating the Border(s) in a Multilingual and Multiethnic Society: Antemurale Myths in Polish and Ukrainian Schoolbooks of the Habsburg Monarchy
Philipp Hofeneder

Chapter 10. Mediating the Antemurale Myth in East Central Europe: Religion and Politics in Modern Geographers’ Entangled Lives and Maps
Steven Seegel

Chapter 11. Bulwarks of Anti-Bolshevism: Russophobic Polemic of the Christian Right in Poland and Hungary in the Interwar Years and Their Roots in the Nineteenth Century
Paul Srodecki

Chapter 12. Defenders of the Russian Land: Viktor Vasnetsov’s Warriors and Russia’s Bulwark Myth
Stephen M. Norris


Chapter 13. Antemurale Thinking as Historical Myth and Ethnic Boundary Mechanism
Pål Kolstø

Chapter 14. Concluding Thoughts on Central and Eastern European Bulwark Rhetoric in the Twenty-First Century
Paul Srodecki

Author: Aisseco

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